'SYLLABLE'TIMED:TurkishFrenchSpanishItalianKurdish; 'STRESS'TIMED:EnglishGermanRussianArabicPersian

SES BİLİNCİ-SES TEMELLİ DİL-ANADİL TEMELLİ ÖĞRENİM

Türkçe Temelli Öğrenim


''
SESTEMELLİDİL''

 ''SOUNDBASEDLANGUAGE
''


...
 

SCHWASHWASOUND

/ə/



TÜM ÜNLÜ HARFLER, SCHWA SESİ YAPAR!

YUMUŞAK G HARFİ, TÜM ÜNLÜ SESLERİ UZATIR
!



...

 

SYLLABLE-TIMED LANGUAGES (TURKISH, SPANISH...)

are PHONETIC.

...

STRESS-TIMED LANGUAGES (ENGLISHGERMAN...)

are NOT PHONETIC.

...

TURKISH SPELLING IS PHONETIC,

UNLIKE ENGLISH SPELLING.


...

 

STRESS-TIMED LANGUAGES

1-ENGLISH

2-RUSSIAN

3-ARABIC

4-SWEDISH

5-EUROPEAN PORTUGUESE

6-GERMAN

...

SYLLABLE-TIMED LANGUAGES

1-TURKISH

2-SPANISH

3-ITALIAN

4-FRENCH

5-BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

6-CHINESE



........

TÜRKİYE’DE ‘‘DİL=SES’’ EĞİTİMİNİ ENGELLEYEN KEMİKLEŞMİŞ HATALAR ve ÇÖZÜM YOLU...

Dil eğitimi, ülkemizde yıllardır çözülememiş en önemli sorunlardan biridir. Çok uzun süredir bu sorunun ötelenmiş ve çözülememişolması, bu sorunu kemikleştirmiş, bir devlet sorunu haline getirmiştir. Burada, sorun, ana unsurdan (Ana ve Hedef dilin ses bilinci) kaynaklanmaktadır. Çünkü ana dilin ve yabancı dillerin ses bilinci (ana unsur, temel, öz) okullarımızda öğrencilere verilmemektedir.


Dillerin (Türkçe, İngilizce, Almanca...) ses sistemi=düzeni okullarda EKSİK ve YANLIŞ öğretildiği veya ses öğretimi okullarda hiç yapılmadığı için biz dilleri=sesleri öğrenemiyoruz, öğretemiyoruz, bilmiyoruz!.. Başka bir ifadeyle, okullarımızda yabancı dil eğitimi yapılırken, hedef dilin sesbilim (fonoloji-genel ses sistemi) bilgisi=‘ana unsur, temel, öz’ doğru ve uygun kullanılmamaktadır. Daha ana unsurun ne olduğunun farkında değil Türkiye!..

Halbuki dilin asıl kaynağını oluşturan seslerin değiştirilmesi veya başka dillerden alınması mümkün değildir. Bu konuda zorlama olursa dili kullanan insanlar arasında anlaşmazlıklar doğar, çünkü dilde zorlama olmaz. Her dil, kendi kuralları içinde yaşar ve gelişmesini sürdürür. Bir dili, diğer bir dilden ayıran en temel faktör, o dilin ses sistemidir, düzenidir.

Örnek: Türkçe,‘vurgu zamanlı’ İngilizce gibi öğretilebilir mi? Bu düşünülemez, uygulanmasıbile teklif edilmez, edilemez. Sonuçta İngilizce de, ‘hece zamanlı’ Türkçe gibi öğrenilemez, öğretilemez. Ancak Türkiye’de –ne zamanlı- dil eğitimi yapıldığı belirsiz!..


Dilin hammaddesi, temel yapı taşı olan ‘ses’, Türkiye’de sadece telaffuz olarak algılanmaktadır, görülmektedir. Doğru telaffuz, temel malzemesi ses olan dilin, ancak ve ancak yan unsurudur. ‘Ses’, ise dili meydana getiren ana unsurdur. Dil ile ilgili diğer tüm olaylar ise yan unsurdur. Tüm yan unsurlar gücünü ana unsurdan alır. Okuma, yazma, konuşma, dinleme... becerilerinin özü sestir. ‘Ses’ sadece konuşmayı (telaffuzu) etkiler demek, gerçek İngilizceden veya bilimden uzaklaşmaktır. Başka bir ifadeyle,İngilizcenin sadece tek yönüne odaklanmak demektir. ‘Ses bilinci’ okuma, yazma ve dinlemeyi en az konuşmayı etkilediği kadar etkiler. Sayılar nasıl matematiğin her dalını etkiliyorsa, ‘sesler’ de dilin her yönünü etkiler.Bir dilin kendine özgü ‘sesleri’, o dilin anayasasını oluşturur. Bir ülkeyi ayakta tutan o ülkenin anayasasıdır, bir dili ayakta tutan o dilin sesleridir.

İlk ve orta öğretim anadil ve yabancı dil dersi öğretim programı gereği, ses öğretimi yapılmak zorundadır. Ancakokullarımızda anadil ve hedef dilin sesletim öğretimi yapılmamaktadır. Sesletim öğretiminin yapılıp yapılmadığı da denetlenmemektedir. Bir dilin genel ses sistemini, dil öğretmenleri özel alan bilgisi olarak bilmek zorundadır. Ancak Türkçe dil öğretmenleri, Türk yabancıdil öğretmenleri, eğitim denetmenleri... anadil ve hedef dilin genel ses sistemini yeterince bilmemekte, bilimden uzak ve yanlış sesler kullanmaktadırlar.


Gelişmiş ülkelerde bir dil öğretilirken (hangi dil olursa olsun=anadil, hedef dil) ses bilincinin kazandırılması esas olup ilk önce öğrencilere ses bilinci verilmektedir.


Bir dilin ses bilgisi, o dilin şifresidir, anayasasıdır.
Beyin, hedef dilin ses sistemini mutlaka kabul etmelidir. (Ses bilincinin erken yaşta verilmesi) Bunun için, ana dil ile hedef dil arasındaki ses ayrımlarını bilmek zorundadır. Ses bilinci verilmeden bir dili öğretmek, öğrenmek dilcilik tekniği bakımından mümkün değildir.


Eğer yapılmaya çalışılan bir işte ciddi bir problem, çözülemeyecek kadar ciddi bir sorun, var ise bu, o işin kesinlikle (%100) özündedir (ses).

 

YÜZBİNDEN  fazla araştırma ve ONLARCA deneysel  çalışma sonucunda ‘SESLE BAŞLAYAN ve SİSTEMLİ SES EĞİTİMİ ALAN’ bireylerin dili kolaylıkla öğrendikleri belirlenmiştir...

YAPILAN ARAŞTIRMALARDAN ÖRNEKLER:


*Beynin, kelimeyi bir bütün olarak değil de, ses dizimine bağlıolarak algıladığı, (Gh. Wettstein, Badour, 2006)


*Çocukların kendi kendilerine ses bilincini edinemedikleri, ses bilincinin bir plan dahilinde öğretilmesi gerektiği, (Riben, Perfetti, 1989)


*Alfabetik dillerde ses bilinci eğitiminin zorunlu bir öncelik olduğu, hatta bunun öğrenmenin kalbi olduğu, (Ziegler, Goswami, 2005)


*Ses bilinci çalışmalarına çok erken yaşlarda başlanmasıgerektiği, (Stanke, 2001)


*Sözlü dil ile yazılı dil arasında vazgeçilmez bir ilişki olduğu, (Bentolila, Gombert, 2005).


*Ses-şekil (harf) ilişkisini keşfetmenin zorunlu olduğu, ortaya çıkmıştır. (Sprenger, Charolles, 2003)


*İngilizcede yaklaşık % 84 SES UYUMU vardır. (Approximately % 84 of English words are phonetically regular. (Wiley Blevins, 1998)


*Anadil eğitimi, yabancı dil eğitiminin en önemli yan unsurlarından biridir. (Sedat Erdoğan, 2012)


Kendim, öğrencilik hayatımda ses’le ilgili hemen hemen hiçbirşey görmedim; binlerce öğrenciye sordum, ses öğretimini görmediklerini söylüyorlar; binlerce öğretmene sordum, ses öğretimini yapmadıklarınısöylediler; birçok denetmene ses öğretiminin neden yapılmadığını sordum, onlarda bu işi neden kurcaladığımı (sende yapma dercesine) sordular; birçok müdüre ses öğretiminin yapılması gerektiğini anlattım, onlarda anlamsız anlamsız yüzüme baktılar; velilere ses bilincinin dil eğitiminde olmazsa olmaz olduğunu anlattım, onlarda çekindikleri-korktukları için bir şey yapamayacaklarını söylediler; üniversitelere gidip yabancı dil hocalarıyla ses öğretimini konuştum, onlarda ses öğretiminin çok önemli olduğunu ancak tam anlamıyla sesleri öğrenmedikleri-bilemedikleri için ses öğretimini yapamadıklarını (sıkılarak) söylediler. Böyle öğrenim-öğretim olmaz...

 

GRAMER = SES, HECE,  KELİME, CÜMLE den oluşur.

Ülkemizde doğru dilbilgisi=gramer öğretimi yapılmadığı için anadil ve yabancı dil eğitimi inanılmaz derece zayıftır. Türkiye’de sadece gramer bölümünün cümle kısmı (%25) yapılmaya çalışılmaktadır. Bu da cümle ezberlemekten öteye gitmemektedir. Ancak birçok devlet yetkilisi, okullarda sadece gramer öğretimi yapıldığı için anadil ve yabancı dil eğitiminin kötü olduğunu dillendirmektedir. Bu inanılır gibi değil! Okullarda sadece cümle kısmıyapılmaktadır... SES, HECE...YOK. Türkiye’de ‘ses’ gramerden bile sayılmamaktadır!.. Halbuki cümle, kelime ve heceyi denetleyen SES tir.

NOT: Hemen hemen her yere başvurmama rağmen, herkes bu konuda fazla birşey yapamayacağını belirtti!.. Çünkü ‘sorun’ artık KEMİKLEŞMİŞ durumda...


 

‘Hece zamanlı’ Türkçe

Vurgu zamanlı’ İngilizce




........

TURKISH CONSONANTS
(TÜRKÇENİN ÜNSÜZ SESLERİ)

 

                  Çift Dudak
       

/p/

/b/

   /m/  

/w/

 

 

Alt dudak

/ D

/f/

/v/

 

 

 

 

Dil ucu

/ D

/θ/

/ð/

 

 

 

 

Dil ucu

/ Diş eti

/d/

/t/

/n/

 ince /l/  

 kalın /l/  

     /r/    

Dil önü

/ Diş eti

/s/

/z/

 

 

 

 

Dil önü

/ Diş eti ardı

/ç/

/c/

/ş/

/j/

 

 

Dil ortası

/ Ön damak

/k/

(i,e,ü,ö,â)

/g/

(i,e,ü,ö,â)

/y/

 

 

 

Dil ortası

/ Orta damak

       /k       

(ı)

       /g/      

(ı)

 

 

 

 

Dil arkası

/ Art damak

         /k         (u,o,a)

      /g/      (u,o,a)

/ŋ/

 

 

 

Gırtlak 

/h/

 

 

 

 

 






........

TURKISH VOWEL SYSTEM
(TÜRKÇENİN ÜNLÜ SES SİSTEMİ)

  

SHORT VOWELS
(TÜRKÇENİN KISA ÜNLÜ SESLERİ)
 

/ɑ/

/e/

/ɛ/

/ı/

/i/

/o/

/ö/

/u/

/ü/

/â/

/ô/

/û/

 

 

LONG VOWELS
(
TÜRKÇENİN UZUN ÜNLÜ SESLERİ) 

ː/

/eː/

ː/

/iː/

/oː/

ː/

/uː/

ː/

ː/

 

 

‘Ğ’ MAKES ALL THE VOWELS LONG
(YUMUŞAK G TÜM ÜNLÜ SESLERİ UZATIR)
 

= /iː/

= /eː/

üğ =ː/

öğ =ː/

ığ =ː/

=ː/

= /uː/

= /oː/

 

 

TONGUE POSITION
(DİLİN DURUMUNA GÖRE ÜNLÜ SESLER)
 

FRONT

/e/ /ɛ/ /eː/ /i/ /iː/ /ö/ /öː/ /ü/ /üː/ /â/ /âː/

CENTRAL

/ı/   /ıː/

BACK

/ɑ/   /ɑː/ /o/ /oː/ /u/ /uː/ /ô/ /û/

 

 

LIPS POSITION
(DUDAKLARIN DURUMUNA GÖRE ÜNLÜ SESLER)
 

UNROUNDED

/ɑ/ /ɑː/ /e/ /ɛ/ /eː/ /ı/ /ıː/ /i/ /iː/ /âː/ /â/

ROUNDED

/o/   /oː/ /ö/ /öː/ /u/ /uː/ /ü/ /üː/ /ô/ /û/

     

 

JAW POSITION
(ALT ÇENENİN DURUMUNA GÖRE ÜNLÜ SESLER)

NARROW   (CLOSE)

/i/   /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /ü/ /üː/ /û/

HALF-CLOSE

/e/   /ı/ /ıː/

HALF-OPEN

/ɛ/   /eː/ /o/ /oː/ /ö/ /öː/ /ô/

WIDE (OPEN)

/ɑ/   /â/ /ɑː/ /âː/





TURKISH BORROWED VOWELS /â, î, û, ô/
from ARABIC, PERSIAN, and FRENCH.  

                                       

FRONT SHORT   VOWEL /â/

kâlp, dükkân, gâwur, Nigâr, Lâpseki, mekân, tezgâh, kâğıt, selâm, silâh, lâf...

FRONT LONG   VOWEL /âː/

ilâːve, lâːzım, kâːbus, lâːyık, lâːnet, Hakkâːri, kâːtip, hikâːye, ifâːde, lâːkin, lâːle...

BACK-FRONT   VOWEL /û/

halûk, mahlûk, lûtuf, sükût, mahkûm, üslûp...

BACK-FRONT   VOWEL /ô/

alkôl, rôl, gôl, hôl, sôl, lôdos, lôkum, lôkanta...

                                                                    

      

‘Ğ’ = /y/ with /i, e, ö, ü/ 

FRONT   VOWELS

SPELLING /ğ/

PRONUNCIATION /y/

/i, e, ö, ü/

eğitim, değişim...

/eyitim, deyişim.../

 

 

VOWEL SOUNDS with /y/

ıy

/ıi/

iy

//

uy

/ui/

üy

/üi/

ey

/ei/

ay

/ɑi/

oy

/oi/

öy

/öi/

   

 

VOWEL SOUNDS with /w/

ev
/ew/

av
/ɑw/

uv
/uw/

üv
/üw/

ov
/ow/

öv
/öw/

 

THERE are 21 VOWEL SOUNDS in ISTANBUL TURKISH.

THERE are 29 CONSONANT SOUNDS in ISTANBUL TURKISH.

TURKISH SOUNDS are MORE THAN ENGLISH SOUNDS.

 

 

TONGUE POSITION

FRONT VOWELS

MID-VOWELS

BACK VOWELS

/i, e, ö, ü/

/ı/

, o, u/

               

 

JAW POSITION

NARROW VOWELS

MID-VOWELS

WIDE VOWELS

/i, ı, ü, u/

/e, o, ö/

/ɑ/

 

 

THE UNFAMILIAR CONSONANT SOUNDS

ENGLISH

/dʒ/

/tʃ/

/ð/

/ʒ/

/ŋ/

/ʃ/

/θ/

/j/

TURKISH

/c/

/ç/

/dh/

/j/

/n/

/ş/

/th/

/y/




........




SYLLABLE-TIMED
TURKISH
VERSUS
STRESS-TIMEDENGLISH’ 

 

-absorb                          
/əbˈsɔːb/              
/əbˈzɔːb/              

-absurd                          
/əbˈsɜːd/              
/əbˈzɜːd/              

-academician                   
/əˌkædəˈmɪʃn/

-academy                        
/əˈkædəmi/

-accent                           
/ˈæksənt/             
/ˈæksent/             

-acoustic                        
/əˈkuːstɪk/

-activity                          
/ækˈtɪvəti/

-actor                            
/ˈæktəʳ/

-actress                          
/ˈæktrəs/

-actual                           
/ˈæktʃuəl/

-Adam                            
/ˈædəm/

-adapt                            
/əˈdæpt/

-adaptation                      
/ˌædæpˈteɪʃn/

-adapter                          
/əˈdæptəʳ/

-address                         
/əˈdres/

-advantage                      
/ədˈvɑːntɪdʒ/

-Africa                            
/ˈæfrɪkə/

-agenda                          
/əˈdʒendə/

-agent                            
/ˈeɪdʒənt/

-alarm                            
/əˈlɑːm/

-album                           
/ˈælbəm/

-alphabet                        
/ˈælfəbet/

-alternative                      
/ɔːlˈtɜːnətɪv/

-aluminium                      
/ˌæləˈmɪniəm/

-ambulance                     
/ˈæmbjələns/                 
/ˈæmbjʊləns/

-Amerika                         
/əˈmerɪkə/

-analyse                          
/ˈænəlaɪz/

-analysis                         
/əˈnæləsɪs/

-anarchist                         
/ˈænəkɪst/

-anatomy                        
/əˈnætəmi/

-anemia                          
/əˈniːmiə/

-animation                      
/ˌænɪˈmeɪʃn/

-announce                       
/əˈnaʊns/

-antipathetic                    
/ˌæntɪpəˈθetɪk/

-antipathy                       
/ænˈtɪpəθi/

-antonym                        
/ˈæntənɪm/

-apart                            
/əˈpɑːt/

-apartment                      
/əˈpɑːtmənt/

-appetizer                       
/ˈæpɪtaɪzəʳ/

-arabesque                      
/ˌærəˈbesk/

-arena                            
/əˈriːnə/

-argument                       
/ˈɑːgjumənt/                  
/ˈɑːgjəmənt/                  

-arranger                         
/əˈreɪndʒəʳ/

-arsenal                          
/ˈɑːsənl/

-Asia                              
/ˈeɪʃə/                           
/ˈeɪʒə/

-assist                            
/əˈsɪst/

-assistant                       
/əˈsɪstnt/

-astronaut                       
/ˈæstrənɔːt/

-athlete                          
/ˈæθliːt/

-atlas                             
/ˈætləs/

-atmosphere                    
/ˈætməsfɪəʳ/

-attach                           
/əˈtætʃ/

-attache                          
/əˈtæʃeɪ/

-attack                           
/əˈtæk/

-August                          
/ˈɔːgəst/

-aura                              
/ˈɔːrə/

-automatic                      
/ˌɔːtəˈmætɪk/

-average                         
/ˈævərɪdʒ/


-balance                         
/ˈbæləns/

-balcony                         
/ˈbælkəni/

-balloon                          
/bəˈluːn/

-banal                                     
/bəˈnɑːl/

-bank                            
/bæŋk/

-barbarian                       
/bɑːˈbeəriən/

-barbecue                        
/ˈbɑːbɪkjuː/

-barber                           
/ˈbɑːbəʳ/

-baron                            
/ˈbærən/

-barrier                           
/ˈbæriər/

-battery                          
/ˈbætəri/

-bazaar                           
/bəˈzɑːʳ/

-beige                            
/beɪʒ/

-Belgian                          
/ˈbeldʒən/

-bonus                           
/ˈbəʊnəs/

-boom                            
/buːm/

-boot                              
/buːt/

-boutique                        
/buːˈtiːk/

-bravo                            
/ˈbrɑːvəʊ/

-briefing                         
/ˈbriːfɪŋ/

-bulletin                         
/ˈbʊlətɪn/

-bureau                          
/ˈbjʊərəʊ/

-bust                             
/bʌst/

-button                           
/ˈbʌtn/

-bye                               
/baɪ/


-cabin                                     
/ˈkæbɪn/

-cabinet                          
/ˈkæbɪnət/

-cable                                     
/ˈkeɪbl/

-cactus                           
/ˈkæktəs/

-cafe                              
/ˈkæfeɪ/

-calorie                           
/ˈkæləri/

-camera                          
/ˈkæmərə/

-camouflage                    
/ˈkæməflɑːʒ/

-camp                                        
/kæmp/

-campaign                       
/kæmˈpeɪn/

-canal                                     
/kəˈnæl/

-cancer                           
/ˈkænsəʳ/

-canteen                         
/kænˈtiːn/

-capacity                         
/kəˈpæsəti/

-capitalist                       
/ˈkæpɪtəlɪst/

-captain                          
/ˈkæptɪn/

-carbon                          
/ˈkɑːbən/

-card                              
/kɑːd/

-career                           
/kəˈrɪəʳ/

-cargo                            
/ˈkɑːgəʊ/

-caricature                       
/ˈkærɪkətʃʊəʳ/

-carnival                         
/ˈkɑːnɪvl/

-cartel                            
/kɑːˈtel/

-cassette                         
/kəˈset/

-catalog                          
/ˈkætəlɒg/

-category                        
/ˈkætəgəri/

-central                          
/ˈsentrəl/

-certificate                      
/səˈtɪfɪkət/

-champion                       
/ˈtʃæmpiən/

-chance                          
/tʃɑːns/

-channel                         
/ˈtʃænl/

-chaos                            
/ˈkeɪɒs/

-character                       
/ˈkærəktəʳ/

-charge                           
/tʃɑːdʒ/

-cheque                          
/tʃek/

-chocolate                       
/ˈtʃɒklət/

-chronology                     
/krəˈnɒlədʒi/

-cigarette                        
/ˌsɪgəˈret/

-cinema                          
/ˈsɪnəmə/

-circulation                      
/ˌsɜːkjəˈleɪʃn/                
/ˌsɜːkjʊˈleɪʃn/

-civil                              
/ˈsɪvl/

-climate                          
/ˈklaɪmət/

-closet                           
/ˈklɒzɪt/

-club                              
/klʌb/

-coach                            
/kəʊtʃ/

-coalition                        
/ˌkəʊəˈlɪʃn/

-cobra                            
/ˈkəʊbrə/

-coca                              
/ˈkəʊkə/

-cocktail                         
/ˈkɒkteɪl/

-coffee                           
/ˈkɒfi/

-collection                       
/kəˈlekʃn/

-collective                       
/kəˈlektɪv/

-college                          
/ˈkɒlɪdʒ/

-colon                            
/ˈkəʊlən/

-coma                                     
/ˈkəʊmə/

-combination                   
/ˌkɒmbɪˈneɪʃn/

-comedian                       
/kəˈmiːdiən/

-comedy                         
/ˈkɒmədi/

-comfort                         
/ˈkʌmfət/

-command                       
/kəˈmɑːnd/

-commission                   
/kəˈmɪʃn/

-committee                      
/kəˈmɪti/

-complete                       
/kəmˈpliːt/

-compliment                    
/ˈkɒmplɪmənt/

-concentrate                    
/ˈkɒnsntreɪt/

-concentration                  
/ˌkɒnsnˈtreɪʃn/

-concept                         
/ˈkɒnsept/

-concert                          
/ˈkɒnsət/

-condition                       
/kənˈdɪʃn/

-conference                     
/ˈkɒnfərəns/

-congress                        
/ˈkɒŋgres/

-contact                          
/ˈkɒntækt/

-container                       
/kənˈteɪnəʳ/

-contra                           
/ˈkɒntrə/

-contract                         
/ˈkɒntrækt/

-control                          
/kənˈtrəʊl/

-corner                           
/ˈkɔːnəʳ/

-corridor                           
/ˈkɒrɪdɔːʳ/

-cosmopolitan                  
/ˌkɒzməˈpɒlɪtən/

-costume                        
/ˈkɒstjuːm/

-cotton                           
/ˈkɒtn/

-council                          
/ˈkaʊnsl/

-coupon                            
/ˈkuːpɒn/

-court                                     
/kɔːt/

-cousin                           
/ˈkʌzn/

-cowboy                         
/ˈkaʊbɔɪ/

-credit                            
/ˈkredɪt/

-criminal                         
/ˈkrɪmɪnl/

-crisis                                     
/ˈkraɪsɪs/

-criterion                        
/kraɪˈtɪəriən/

-critic                            
/ˈkrɪtɪk/

-crystal                           
/ˈkrɪstl/

-culture                          
/ˈkʌltʃər/

-cup                               
/kʌp/

-cylinder                         
/ˈsɪlɪndəʳ/




-dance                            
/dɑːns/

-data                              
/ˈdeɪtə/

-declare                          
/dɪˈkleəʳ/

-decor                            
/ˈdeɪkɔːʳ/

-decoration                      
/ˌdekəˈreɪʃn/

-deep                             
/diːp/

-defense                         
/dɪˈfens/

-defensive                       
/dɪˈfensɪv/

-degree                           
/dɪˈgriː/

-delegate                        
/ˈdelɪgət/

-democracy                     
/dɪˈmɒkrəsi/

-democrat                       
/ˈdeməkræt/

-democratic                     
/ˌdeməˈkrætɪk/

-department                    
/dɪˈpɑːtmənt/

-deposit                          
/dɪˈpɒzɪt/

-depression                     
/dɪˈpreʃn/

-derby                            
/ˈdɑːbi/

-dervish                          
/ˈdɜːvɪʃ/

-detail                            
/ˈdiːteɪl/

-detective                        
/dɪˈtektɪv/

-detector                         
/dɪˈtektəʳ/

-detox                            
/ˈdiːtɒks/

-dictator                         
/dɪkˈteɪtəʳ/

-diction                          
/ˈdɪkʃn/

-diesel                            
/ˈdiːzl/

-diet                              
/ˈdaɪət/

-digital                           
/ˈdɪdʒɪtl/

-dilemma                        
/dɪˈlemə/

-diploma                         
/dɪˈpləʊmə/

-diplomat                        
/ˈdɪpləmæt/

-director                         
/dɪˈrektəʳ/

-disadvantage                  
/ˌdɪsədˈvɑːntɪdʒ/

-discipline                       
/ˈdɪsəplɪn/

-discount                        
/ˈdɪskaʊnt/

-disko                            
/ˈdɪskəʊ/

-distributor                      
/dɪˈstrɪbjətəʳ/                
/dɪˈstrɪbjʊtəʳ/

-doctor                           
/ˈdɒktəʳ/

-doctoral                         
/ˈdɒktərəl/

-document                      
/ˈdɒkjumənt/                 
/ˈdɒkjəmənt/

-dogma                          
/ˈdɒgmə/

-dollar                            
/ˈdɒləʳ/

-dominant                       
/ˈdɒmɪnənt/

-doner                            
/ˈdɒnəʳ/

-doner kebab                      
/ˌdɒnə kɪˈbæb/

-double                          
/ˈdʌbl/

-drama                           
/ˈdrɑːmə/

-dramatic                        
/drəˈmætɪk/

-dynamic                        
/daɪˈnæmɪk/



-ecology                         
/ɪˈkɒlədʒi/

-economic                       
/ˌekəˈnɒmɪk/

-economy                        
/ɪˈkɒnəmi/

-ecstasy                          
/ˈekstəsi/

-eczema                          
/ˈeksɪmə/

-editor                            
/ˈedɪtəʳ/

-effect                            
/ɪˈfekt/

-effort                            
/ˈefət/

-electric                          
/ɪˈlektrɪk/

-element                         
/ˈelɪmənt/

-elementary                     
/ˌelɪˈmentri/

-eliminate                       
/ɪˈlɪmɪneɪt/

-elimination                     
/ɪˌlɪmɪˈneɪʃn/

-embargo                        
/ɪmˈbɑːgəʊ/

-emission                        
/ɪˈmɪʃn/

-encyclopedia                   
/ɪnˌsaɪkləˈpiːdiə/

-endeavour                      
/ɪnˈdevəʳ/

-energetic                       
/ˌenəˈdʒetɪk/

-energy                           
/ˈenədʒi/

-English                          
/ˈɪŋglɪʃ/

-erection                         
/ɪˈrekʃn/

-erosion                          
/ɪˈrəʊʒn/

-ethnic                           
/ˈeθnɪk/

-Europe                          
/ˈjʊərəp/

-exercise                         
/ˈeksəsaɪz/

-express                         
/ɪkˈspres/

-extra                            
/ˈekstrə/


-factor                            
/ˈfæktəʳ/

-factory                          
/ˈfæktəri/

-fair                               
/feəʳ/

-fan                               
/fæn/

-fantastic                        
/fænˈtæstɪk/

-far                                
/fɑːʳ/

-favourite                        
/ˈfeɪvərɪt/            
/ˈfeɪvrət/

-fax                               
/fæks/

-federal                          
/ˈfedərəl/

-federation                      
/ˌfedəˈreɪʃn/

-feminist                         
/ˈfemənɪst/

-festival                          
/ˈfestɪvl/

-film                              
/fɪlm/

-filter                             
/ˈfɪltəʳ/

-final                             
/ˈfaɪnl/

-firm                              
/fɜːm/

-fit                                
/fɪt/

-flash                            
/flæʃ/

-flute                             
/fluːt/

-focus                                     
/ˈfəʊkəs/

-football                         
/ˈfʊtbɔːl/             
/ˈfʊpbɔːl/

-form                             
/fɔːm/

-formation                       
/fɔːˈmeɪʃn/

-formula                         
/ˈfɔːmjələ/           
/ˈfɔːmjʊlə/

-forum                           
/ˈfɔːrəm/

-forward                         
/ˈfɔːwəd/

-fossil                                     
/ˈfɒsl/

-foul                              
/faʊl/

-free                              
/friː/

-frequency                       
/ˈ friːkwənsi/

-fuel                              
/ˈfjuːəl/

-full                                
/fʊl/

-function                        
/ˈfʌŋkʃn/

-fund                             
/fʌnd/

-fuse                            
/fjuːz/

-futurist                          
/ˈfjuːtʃərɪst/



-gala                              
/ˈgɑːlə/

-gallery                           
/ˈgæləri/

-garage                           
/ˈgærɑːʒ/

-gas                               
/gæs/

-gasp                             
/gɑːsp/

-gendarme                       
/ˈʒɒndɑːm/

-general                          
/ˈdʒenrəl/

-generation                      
/ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃn/

-generator                       
/ˈdʒenəreɪtəʳ/

-genetic                          
/dʒəˈnetɪk/

-gentleman                      
/ˈdʒentlmən/

-geography                      
/dʒiˈɒgrəfi/

-geometry                       
/dʒiˈɒmətri/

-global                           
/ˈgləʊbl/

-goal                              
/gəʊl/

-golf                               
/gɒlf/

-google                          
/ˈguːgl/

-grammar                          
/ˈgræməʳ/

-graphic                          
/ˈgræfɪk/

-grey                              
/greɪ/

-group                            
/gruːp/

-guarantee                       
/ˌgærənˈtiː/

-guard                            
/gɑːd/

-guardian                          
/ˈgɑːdiən/

-guerrilla                         
/gəˈrɪlə/

-guitar                            
/gɪˈtɑːʳ/

-gymnastics                     
/dʒɪmˈnæstɪks/



-hacker                           
/ˈhækəʳ/

-hall                               
/hɔːl/

-hallucination                   
/həˌluːsɪˈneɪʃn/

-hamburger                     
/ˈhæmbɜːgəʳ/

-handicap                        
/ˈhændikæp/

-harmony                        
/ˈhɑːməni/

-hazel                                     
/ˈheɪzl/

-helicopter                      
/ˈhelɪkɒptəʳ/

-hello                            
/həˈləʊ/

-hierarchy                       
/ˈhaɪrɑːki/

-hobby                           
/ˈhɒbi/

-honour                          
/ˈɒnəʳ/

-hooligan                        
/ˈhuːlɪgən/

-horizon                         
/həˈraɪzn/

-horn                             
/hɔːn/

-horoscope                      
/ˈhɒrəskəʊp/

-hotel                            
/həʊˈtel/

-human                          
/ˈhjuːmən/

-hydrogen                       
/ˈhaɪdrədʒən/

-hygiene                         
/ˈhaɪdʒiːn/

-hyper                            
/ˈhaɪpəʳ/

-hypnosis                        
/hɪpˈnəʊsɪs/


-Italy                              
/ˈɪtəli/

-icon                                 
/ˈaɪkɒn/

-ideal                            
/aɪˈdɪəl/               
/aɪˈdiːəl/

-idealism                        
/aɪˈdɪəlɪzəm/                 
/aɪˈdiːəlɪzəm/

-idealist                         
/aɪˈdɪəlɪst/           
/aɪˈdiːəlɪst/

-illegal                           
/ɪˈliːgl/

-illusion                          
/ɪˈluːʒn/

-imperial                         
/ɪmˈpɪəriəl/

-imperialism                    
/ɪmˈpɪəriəlɪzm/

-industrial                       
/ɪnˈdʌstriəl/

-industry                         
/ˈɪndəstri/

-infection                        
/ɪnˈfekʃn/

-inflation                        
/ɪnˈfleɪʃn/

-information                    
/ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn/

-injection                        
/ɪnˈdʒekʃn/

-innovation                      
/ˌɪnəˈveɪʃn/

-institute                        
/ˈɪnstɪtjuːt/

-instrument                     
/ˈɪnstrəmənt/                 
/ˈɪnstrʊmənt/

-integrate                        
/ˈɪntɪgreɪt/

-intellectual                     
/ˌɪntɪˈlektʃuəl/

-intermediate                   
/ˌɪntəˈmiːdiət/

-internet                         
/ˈɪntənet/

-intonation                      
/ˌɪntəˈneɪʃn/

-introduce                       
/ˌɪntrəˈdjuːs/

-introduction                   
/ˌɪntrəˈdʌkʃn/

-investigation                   
/ɪnˌvestɪˈgeɪʃn/

-ironic                            
/aɪˈrɒnɪk/

-irrational                        
/ɪˈræʃənl/

-isolation                        
/ˌaɪsəˈleɪʃn/


-jacket                           
/ˈdʒækɪt/

-Japan                            
/dʒəˈpæn/

-Japanese                        
/ˌdʒæpəˈniːz/

-jargon                           
/ˈdʒɑːgən/

-jet                                
/dʒet/

-jupiter                           
/ˈdʒuːpɪtəʳ/

-jury                               
/ˈdʒʊəri/


-kangaroo                       
/ˌkæŋgəˈruː/

-karate                           
/kəˈrɑːti/

-kebab                           
/kɪˈbæb/

-keen                             
/kiːn/

-kettle                            
/ˈketl/

-kilo                              
/ˈkiːləʊ/

-kilogram                          
/ˈkɪləgræm/

-kilometre                       
/ˈkɪləmiːtəʳ/

-knowledge                     
/ˈnɒlɪdʒ/

-kung fu                         
/ˌkʌŋ ˈfuː/



-laboratory                      
/ləˈbɒrətri/

-lamp                            
/læmp/

-language                        
/ˈlæŋgwɪdʒ/

-laser                             
/ˈleɪzəʳ/

-league                           
/liːg/

-legal                             
/ˈliːgl/

-lemon                           
/ˈlemən/

-leopard                          
/ˈlepəd/

-liberal                           
/ˈlɪbərəl/

-Libya                                     
/ˈlɪbiə/

-licence                          
/ˈlaɪsns/

-limit                              
/ˈlɪmɪt/

-list                               
/lɪst/

-literature                        
/ˈlɪtrətʃəʳ/

-lobby                            
/ˈlɒbi/

-local                            
/ˈləʊkl/

-location                         
/ləʊˈkeɪʃn/

-logistic                          
/ləˈdʒɪstɪk/

-logo                              
/ˈləʊgəʊ/

-Lolita                            
/ləʊˈliːtə/             
/ləˈliːtə/

-luxurious                       
/lʌgˈʒʊəriəs/

-luxury                           
/ˈlʌkʃəri/

-lyric                              
/ˈlɪrɪk/


-machine                        
/məˈʃiːn/

-madam                          
/ˈmædəm/

-Madonna                        
/məˈdɒnə/

-mafia                            
/ˈmæfiə/

-magazine                       
/ˌmægəˈziːn/

-magma                          
/ˈmægmə/

-magnetic                       
/mægˈnetɪk/

-major                            
/ˈmeɪdʒəʳ/

-Malta                                        
/ˈmɔːltə/

-maniac                          
/ˈmeɪniæk/

-manipulate                     
/məˈnɪpjuleɪt/                
/məˈnɪpjəleɪt/

-manufacture                   
/ˌmænjuˈfæktʃəʳ/  
/ˌmænjəˈfæktʃəʳ/

-marathon                       
/ˈmærəθən/

-march                           
/mɑːtʃ/

-margarine                      
/ˌmɑːdʒəˈriːn/

-marginal                        
/ˈmɑːdʒɪnl/

-marine                          
/məˈriːn/

-maritime                        
/ˈmærɪtaɪm/

-mark                            
/mɑːk/

-market                          
/ˈmɑːkɪt/

-mask                                     
/mɑːsk/

-mason                             
/ˈmeɪsn/

-massage                        
/ˈmæsɑːʒ/

-master                          
/ˈmɑːstəʳ/

-matador                         
/ˈmætədɔːʳ/

-match                              
/mætʃ/

-material                         
/məˈtɪəriəl/

-mathematics                   
/ˌmæθɪˈmætɪks/

-maths                           
/mæθs/

-maximum                      
/ˈmæksɪməm/

-mechanical                     
/mɪˈkænɪkl/

-medal                           
/ˈmedl/

-media                           
/ˈmiːdiə/

-medical                         
/ˈmedɪkl/

-medium                           
/ˈmiːdiəm/

-mega                            
/ˈmegə/

-megabyte                       
/ˈmegəbaɪt/

-megaphone                    
/ˈmegəfəʊn/

-megapixel                      
/ˈmegəpɪksl/

-megastar                       
/ˈmegəstɑːʳ/

-melody                          
/ˈmelədi/

-memorial                       
/məˈmɔːriəl/

-mental                          
/ˈmentl/

-menu                            
/ˈmenjuː/

-mercy                           
/ˈmɜːsi/

-message                        
/ˈmesɪdʒ/

-metabolism                    
/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/

-metal                            
/ˈmetl/

-metaphor                       
/ˈmetəfəʳ/

-meteor                          
/ˈmiːtiəʳ/

-meter                            
/ˈmiːtəʳ/

-method                         
/ˈmeθəd/

-microphone                    
/ˈmaɪkrəfəʊn/

-microscope                    
/ˈmaɪkrəskəʊp/

-mile                              
/maɪl/

-millimetre                      
/ˈmɪlimiːtəʳ/

-million                          
/ˈmɪljən/

-mimic                           
/ˈmɪmɪk/

-mine                            
/maɪn/

-mineral                          
/ˈmɪnərəl/

-miniature                         
/ˈmɪnətʃəʳ/

-minibus                         
/ˈmɪnibʌs/

-minimize                       
/ˈmɪnɪmaɪz/

-minimum                       
/ˈmɪnɪməm/

-mission                         
/ˈmɪʃn/

-mobile                          
/ˈməʊbaɪl/

-mode                            
/məʊd/

-model                           
/ˈmɒdl/

-moderator                      
/ˈmɒdəreɪtəʳ/

-modern                         
/ˈmɒdn/

-modernize                      
/ˈmɒdənaɪz/

-module                          
/ˈmɒdjuːl/

-monarchy                       
/ˈmɒnəki/

-monitor                         
/ˈmɒnɪtəʳ/

-monotone                      
/ˈmɒnətəʊn/

-monotonous                            
/məˈnɒtənəs/

-montage                        
/ˈmɒntɑːʒ/

-morale                          
/məˈrɑːl/

-more                            
/mɔːʳ/

-mortgage                       
/ˈmɔːgɪdʒ/

-motivation                     
/ˌməʊtɪˈveɪʃn/

-motor                           
/ˈməʊtəʳ/

-murmur                         
/ˈmɜːməʳ/

-museum                        
/mjuːˈziəm/

-music                           
/ˈmjuːzɪk/

-musical                         
/ˈmjuːzɪkl/


-natural                          
/ˈnætʃrəl/

-negative                        
/ˈnegətɪv/

-normal                          
/ˈnɔːml/

-nostalgic                       
/nɒˈstældʒɪk/

-nuclear                          
/ˈnjuːkliəʳ/

-number                         
/ˈnʌmbəʳ/



-object                           
/ˈɒbdʒɪkt/

-obsess                          
/əbˈses/

-obsession                      
/əbˈseʃn/

-ocean                            
/ˈəʊʃn/

-office                            
/ˈɒfɪs/

-oligarchy                       
/ˈɒlɪgɑːki/

-olympic                         
/əˈlɪmpɪk/

-omelette                        
/ˈɒmlət/

-oncology                       
/ɒŋˈkɒlədʒi/

-operation                         
/ˌɒpəˈreɪʃn/

-operator                          
/ˈɒpəreɪtəʳ/

-option                           
/ˈɒpʃn/

-organ                            
/ˈɔːgən/

-organic                          
/ɔːˈgænɪk/

-organization                   
/ˌɔːgənaɪˈzeɪʃn/

-original                         
/əˈrɪdʒənl/

-orthodox                       
/ˈɔːθədɒks/

-Oscar                            
/ˈɒskəʳ/

-oval                              
/ˈəʊvl/

-oxygen                          
/ˈɒksɪdʒən/



-packet                           
/ˈpækɪt/

-palace                           
/ˈpæləs/

-panda                           
/ˈpændə/

-panel                            
/ˈpænl/

-panic                                        
/ˈpænɪk/

-paradise                        
/ˈpærədaɪs/

-paradox                         
/ˈpærədɒks/

-parallel                          
/ˈpærəlel/

-parcel                           
/ˈpɑːsl/

-pardon                          
/ˈpɑːdn/

-parenthesis                    
/pəˈrenθəsɪs/

-parentheses                    
/pəˈrenθəsiːz/

-parity                            
/ˈpærəti/

-park                              
/pɑːk/

-parliament                      
/ˈpɑːləmənt/

-parole                           
/pəˈrəʊl/

-part                              
/pɑːt/

-partner                          
/ˈpɑːtnəʳ/

-party                            
/ˈpɑːti/

-passage                           
/ˈpæsɪdʒ/

-passive                          
/ˈpæsɪv/

-passport                        
/ˈpɑːspɔːt/

-pasta                                        
/ˈpæstə/

-pastoral                         
/ˈpɑːstərəl/

-patent                           
/ˈpætnt/               
/ˈpeɪtnt/

-penalty                          
/ˈpenəlti/

-penguin                         
/ˈpeŋgwɪn/

-perfect                          
/ˈpɜːfɪkt/

-performance                   
/pəˈfɔːməns/

-perhaps                         
/præps/

-period                           
/ˈpɪəriəd/

-personal                        
/ˈpɜːsənl/

-personnel                       
/ˌpɜːsəˈnel/

-Peru                              
/pəˈruː/

-petrol                            
/ˈpetrəl/

-phobia                          
/ˈfəʊbiə/

-phonetic                          
/fəˈnetɪk/

-phonetician                    
/ˌfəʊnəˈtɪʃn/                  
/ˌfɒnəˈtɪʃn/

-phonetics                       
/fəˈnetɪks/

-physical                           
/ˈfɪzɪkl/

-physics                         
/ˈfɪzɪks/

-physique                              
/fɪˈziːk/

-pianist                          
/ˈpɪənɪst/

-piano                            
/piˈænəʊ/

-picnic                           
/ˈpɪknɪk/

-pilot                             
/ˈpaɪlət/

-piston                           
/ˈpɪstən/

-pizza                            
/ˈpiːtsə/

-plan                              
/plæn/

-plastic                           
/ˈplæstɪk/

-platform                          
/ˈplætfɔːm/

-plaza                            
/ˈplɑːzə/

-police                           
/pəˈliːs/

-policy                           
/ˈpɒləsi/

-politic                           
/ˈpɒlətɪk/

-political                         
/pəˈlɪtɪkl/

-politician                       
/ˌpɒləˈtɪʃn/

-popular                         
/ˈpɒpjələʳ/            
/ˈpɒpjʊləʳ/

-portrait                          
/ˈpɔːtreɪt/            
/ˈpɔːtrət/

-position                         
/pəˈzɪʃn/

-positive                         
/ˈpɒzətɪv/

-poster                           
/ˈpəʊstəʳ/

-postpone                       
/pəˈspəʊn/

-potato                           
/pəˈteɪtəʊ/

-potential                        
/pəˈtenʃl/

-practical                        
/ˈpræktɪkl/

-prefab                           
/ˈpriːfæb/

-preparation                    
/ˌprepəˈreɪʃn/

-prescription                   
/prɪˈskrɪpʃn/

-press                                     
/pres/

-prince                           
/prɪns/

-princess                        
/ˌprɪnˈses/

-principle                        
/ˈprɪnsəpl/

-problem                         
/ˈprɒbləm/

-procedure                        
/prəˈsiːdʒəʳ/

-proceed                         
/prəˈsiːd/

-proceeding                     
/prəˈsiːdɪŋ/

-professional                   
/prəˈfeʃənl/

-professor                       
/prəˈfesəʳ/

-profile                           
/ˈprəʊfaɪl/

-programme                    
/ˈprəʊgræm/

-project                          
/ˈprɒdʒekt/

-projector                        
/prəˈdʒektəʳ/

-promotion                      
/prəˈməʊʃn/

-protocol                        
/ˈprəʊtəkɒl/

-provocation                    
/ˌprɒvəˈkeɪʃn/

-provocative                    
/prəˈvɒkətɪv/

-provoke                         
/prəˈvəʊk/

-psychology                     
/saɪˈkɒlədʒi/

-pyjamas                         
/pəˈdʒɑːməz/

-pyramid                         
/ˈpɪrəmɪd/



-quality                          
/ˈkwɒləti/

-racket                           
/ˈrækɪt/

-radar                            
/ˈreɪdɑːʳ/

-radical                           
/ˈrædɪkl/

-radio                            
/ˈreɪdiəʊ/

-rally                              
/ˈræli/

-Rambo                          
/ˈræmbəʊ/

-rank                             
/ræŋk/

-reaction                         
/riˈækʃn/

-real                              
/ˈriːəl/                           
/rɪəl/                   

-realism                          
/ˈriːəlɪzəm/          
/ˈrɪəlɪzəm/

-reality                           
/riˈæləti/

-realize                             
/ˈriːəlaɪz/             
/ˈrɪəlaɪz/

-recession                       
/rɪˈseʃn/

-record                           
/ˈrekɔːd/

-rectangular                     
/rekˈtæŋgjələʳ/     
/rekˈtæŋgjʊləʳ/

-reference                       
/ˈrefrəns/

-reflex                            
/ˈriːfleks/

-reform                           
/rɪˈfɔːm/

-relax                            
/rɪˈlæks/

-report                           
/rɪˈpɔːt/

-residence                       
/ˈrezɪdəns/

-restore                          
/rɪˈstɔːʳ/

-revenge                         
/rɪˈvendʒ/

-rhythm                          
/ˈrɪðəm/

-ring                              
/rɪŋ/

-risk                              
/rɪsk/

-robot                                     
/ˈrəʊbɒt/

-rocket                           
/ˈrɒkɪt/

-role                              
/rəʊl/

-roman                           
/ˈrəʊmən/

-romantic                        
/rəʊˈmæntɪk/                 
/rəˈmæntɪk/

-route                            
/ruːt/

-routine                          
/ruːˈtiːn/

-Russia                           
/ˈrʌʃə/


-sabotage                        
/ˈsæbətɑːʒ/

-safari                            
/səˈfɑːri/

-salad                                     
/ˈsæləd/

-saloon                           
/səˈluːn/

-sandal                           
/ˈsændl/

-sandwich                       
/ˈsænwɪtʃ/           
/ˈsænwɪdʒ/

-sauce                            
/sɔːs/

-sausage                         
/ˈsɒsɪdʒ/

-scale                            
/skeɪl/

-scandal                         
/ˈskændl/

-scenario                        
/səˈnɑːriəʊ/

-scene                            
/siːn/

-score                                     
/skɔːʳ/

-season                          
/ˈsiːzn/

-secondary                      
/ˈsekəndri/

-secret                           
/ˈsiːkrət/

-secretary                        
/ˈsekrətri/

-sector                           
/ˈsektəʳ/

-seismic                         
/ˈsaɪzmɪk/

-select                            
/sɪˈlekt/

-semantic                        
/sɪˈmæntɪk/

-seminar                         
/ˈsemɪnɑːʳ/

-senator                          
/ˈsenətəʳ/

-sensible                         
/ˈsensəbl/

-sensitive                        
/ˈsensətɪv/

-series                           
/ˈsɪəriːz/

-serum                           
/ˈsɪərəm/

-service                          
/ˈsɜːvɪs/

-shish kebab                   
/ʃɪʃ kɪˈbæb/

-shock                            
/ʃɒk/

-shocked                        
/ʃɒkt/

-shoot                            
/ʃuːt/

-short                            
/ʃɔːt/

-shortage                        
/ˈʃɔːtɪdʒ/

-show                            
/ʃəʊ/

-signal                           
/ˈsɪgnəl/

-simultaneous                           
/ˌsɪmlˈteɪniəs/

-skeleton                        
/ˈskelɪtn/

-sketch                           
/sketʃ/

-slow                             
/sləʊ/

-sociable                         
/ˈsəʊʃəbl/

-social                            
/ˈsəʊʃl/

-specific                         
/spəˈsɪfɪk/

-spokesman                     
/ˈspəʊksmən/

-sponsor                         
/ˈspɒnsəʳ/

-spontaneous                  
/spɒnˈteɪniəs/

-sport                                     
/spɔːt/

-standard                        
/ˈstændəd/

-star                              
/stɑːʳ/

-station                          
/ˈsteɪʃn/

-statistic                           
/stəˈtɪstɪk/

-status                           
/ˈsteɪtəs/

-still                              
/stɪl/

-stock                                     
/stɒk/

-strategic                        
/strəˈtiːdʒɪk/

-strategy                         
/ˈstrætədʒi/

-stress                           
/stres/

-stretch                          
/stretʃ/

-studio                           
/ˈstjuːdiəʊ/

-style                            
/staɪl/

-subvention                     
/səbˈvenʃn/

-super                            
/ˈsuːpəʳ/              
/ˈsjuːpəʳ/

-surprise                         
/səˈpraɪz/

­-symbol                          
/ˈsɪmbl/

-symbolic                        
/sɪmˈbɒlɪk/

-sympathetic                   
/ˌsɪmpəˈθetɪk/

-sympathy                       
/ˈsɪmpəθi/

-syndrome                        
/ˈsɪndrəʊm/

-synergy                         
/ˈsɪnədʒi/

-synonym                        
/ˈsɪnənɪm/

-syrup                            
/ˈsɪrəp/

-system                          
/ˈsɪstəm/


-table                            
/ˈteɪbl/

-tablet                            
/ˈtæblət/

-tactic                                     
/ˈtæktɪk/

-tape                              
/teɪp/

-target                            
/ˈtɑːgɪt/

-Tarzan                           
/ˈtɑːzæn/

-taxi                               
/ˈtæksi/

-technique                       
/tekˈniːk/

-technology                      
/tekˈnɒlədʒi/

-telephone                       
/ˈtelɪfəʊn/

-telescope                       
/ˈtelɪskəʊp/

-television                       
/ˈtelɪvɪʒn/

-tempo                           
/ˈtempəʊ/

-tennis                           
/ˈtenɪs/

-tenor                                     
/ˈtenəʳ/

-tension                          
/ˈtenʃn/

-terrace                          
/ˈterəs/

-terrorist                         
/ˈterərɪst/

-test                              
/test/

-theatre                          
/ˈθɪətəʳ/

-theory                           
/ˈθɪəri/

-thermos                         
/ˈθɜːməs/

-thesis                           
/ˈθiːsɪs/

-threat                            
/θret/

-titanic                           
/taɪˈtænɪk/

-toast                            
/təʊst/

-today                            
/təˈdeɪ/

-toilet                                     
/ˈtɔɪlət/

-tolerance                       
/ˈtɒlərəns/

-tolerate                         
/ˈtɒləreɪt/

-tomato                          
/təˈmɑːtəʊ/

-ton                               
/tʌn/

-tone                             
/təʊn/

-tonight                          
/təˈnaɪt/

-total                             
/ˈtəʊtl/

-tour                              
/tʊəʳ/                  
/tɔːʳ/

-tourism                         
/ˈtʊərɪzəm/          
/ˈtɔːrɪzəm/

-tourist                           
/ˈtʊərɪst/             
/ˈtɔːrɪst/

-tractor                           
/ˈtræktəʳ/

-tradition                        
/trəˈdɪʃn/

-traditional                      
/trəˈdɪʃənl/

-traffic                           
/ˈtræfɪk/

-train                             
/treɪn/

-transfer                         
/ˈtrænsfɜːʳ/

-translate                        
/trænsˈleɪt/          
/trænzˈleɪt/

-trend                                     
/trend/

-triangle                         
/ˈtraɪæŋgl/

-tube                             
/tjuːb/

-tunnel                           
/ˈtʌnl/

-turbulence                      
/ˈtɜːbjələns/         
/ˈtɜːbjʊləns/

-Turkey                          
/ˈtɜːki/

-typical                           
/ˈtɪpɪkl/


-uniform                         
/ˈjunɪfɔːm/

-unit                              
/ˈjuːnɪt/

-universal                         
/ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsl/

-university                       
/ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsəti/


-vacation                        
/vəˈkeɪʃn/            
/veɪˈkeɪʃn/

-valley                            
/ˈvæli/

-vegetable                       
/ˈvedʒtəbl/

-vegetarian                      
/ˌvedʒəˈteəriən/

-ventilator                       
/ˈventɪleɪtəʳ/

-versatile                        
/ˈvɜːsətaɪl/

-version                          
/ˈvɜːʃn/

-veterinarian                    
/ˌvetərɪˈneəriən/

-veto                              
/ˈviːtəʊ/

-village                           
/ˈvɪlɪdʒ/

-virus                            
/ˈvaɪrəs/

-vision                           
/ˈvɪʒn/

-vitamin                          
/ˈvɪtəmɪn/

-wardrobe                       
/ˈwɔːdrəʊb/

-yacht                                     
/jɒt/

-yogurt                           
/ˈjɒgət/






.........

AMERICAN ENGLISH
SPOKEN ENGLISH = STRESSED LANGUAGE = SCHWA

 

a

/ə/

an

/ən/

was

/wəz/

were

//

and

/n/, /ənd/

of

/ə/, /əv/

from

/frəm/, /fəm/

but

/bət/

can

/kən/, /kn/

could

/kəd/

to

//, //

for

//

do

//

you

//, //

her

/ɚ/

him

/əm/, /ɪm/

them

/ðəm/, /əm/

have

/həv/, /əv/, /v/

at

/ət/

or

/ɚ/

has

/həz/, /əz/

are

/ɚ/

some

/səm/

should

/ʃəd/






.......


BRITISH ENGLISH
SPOKEN ENGLISH = STRESSED LANGUAGE = SCHWA

 

a

/ə/

an

/ən/

was

/wəz/

were

/r/

and

/ən/, /n/

of

/əv/, /ə/

from

/frəm/, /fəm/

but

/bət/

can

/kən/, /kn/

could

/kəd/

to

//

for

/r/

do

//

you

//

her

/ər/

him

/əm/, /ɪm/

them

/əm/

have

/əv/, /ə/

at

/ət/

or

/ər/

has

/əz/

are

/ər/

some

/səm/

should

/ʃəd/